Many aliya pioneers, isolated from the West and Israel, went through hardships of prisons and labor camps. In the darkness of incarceration they took over from a few survivors, Zionists of twenties-thirties. In the GULAG they developed friendships and trust among themselves, which enabled them later to widen dangerous activities for national revival throughout the totalitarian country.
Abbreviations: co – courtesy of; RS – Association Remember and Save; POZ – Prisoner of Zion
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